Stephanie and Lindsay in my 3250 course facilitated forum discussions around the topic of motivation, the following is a summary of key points and resources:
Summary of Motivation Forums:
– Motivation can come from intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli, the general consensus was that while intrinsic motivation is more impactful and meaningful both come into play and are important
In order to understand how to motivate your students you will need to understand their “needs, specifically discussed was Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs” which describes students’ needs and how they work to meet those needs and wants.
– ARCS Motivational Theory, developed by John Keller focuses on 4 factors that lead to student engagement, including:
– David Sladkey (2013) has published a student engagement wheel, which assists a teacher in identifying a students’ engagement and to which level they are engaged. http://teachhighschoolmath.blogspot.ca/2013/02/how-can-you-measure-student-engagement.html
– Ariely, Gneezy, Lowenstein and Marr (2005) Suggest that extrinsic motivation only works when an individual deems that the risk and effort result in something achievable and with a great enough reward
– It is suggested if we assess students rather than evaluate and provide more feedback than grades that we may be able to change the focus of our classrooms to intrinsic motivation.
– It is important to only know if a students is motivated but also to know type of motivation the student has.
– Self Determination Theory Self-Determination Theory: Deci & Ryan (1985, 2002) Identifies autonomy, competency and relatedness as motivators
– Electronic Media Sources are evaluated as motivational sources of learning including:
– Twitter (www.twitter.com) – Microblogging
– Facebook (www.facebook.com) – Social networking
– Simple Truths (www.simpletruths.com) – Creativity works-sharing
– Animoto (www.animoto.com) – Creativity works-sharing. http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/spring151/finamore_hochanadel_hochanadel_millam_reinhardt.html
– Challenging expectations, so long as they are realistic are paramount in engaging students
– Goals Theory: Speaks of a students learning relationship, fears and ego.
– Expectancy x Values models: Brophy (2004) & Cross (2001): Discusses how a student is impacted and to what level they are motivated to be engaged based on their intrinsic values and what material, extrinsic rewards they value. Also what a student expects of the course or themselves.
– Self-Efficacy theories: (Bandura 1977, 1982; Corno & Mandinach, 1983): Identifies how a learner’s confidence, essentially if the student believes they can be successful, they will be.
– Self-worth models: Speaks to the ego and ones fear of failure and self-preservation.
– Attributions Theory: (Weiner 1979, 1985 & 1986) Speaks of how a student will relate success or failure to a particular reason which is shaped by personal experience and motivation is based on if the student feels it is within their control.
– Cross & Steadman (1996) suggest that it is 3 theories
C) Attribution that work together to satisfy a student’s needs
– Flow: Csikszentmihalyi (1993, 1997) which to me sounds like the utopia of teaching where every person is so engaged that it is no longer a task to learn but the only thing they want to engage in. It is a place of pure motivation.
– Games have a place in higher education because they create Urgent Optimism, Social Engagement, Blissful Productivity, Epic Meaning: Not only that but they also make the curriculum fun and engaging. (McGonigal, 2010)
– Can motivation be achieved if basic needs are not being met? Can a person stay motivated if they overuse technology or deny themselves “unplugging”?
– Scientific discoveries on the brain and motivation
Videos: http://www.ted.com/talks/jane_mcgonigal_gaming_can_make_a_better_world#t-383932 http://www.ted.com/talks/jane_mcgonigal_gaming_can_make_a_better_world#t-383932 https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=zW6p11QqR7o
Audio Clip: 3 Keys to Motivating Unmotivated Teens: http://www.jackstreet.com/jackstreet/KTEN.Motivatingunmotivated.cfm
Articles: http://www.teachthought.com/teaching/the-importance-of-intrinsic-motivation-in-transforming-learning/ http://www.edutopia.org/blog/guidebook-social-media-in-classroom-vicki-davis 15 Tips To Improve Learners’ Motivation for eLearning Courses How To Tap The Power of Learner Motivation Motivation in Learning: Encouraging Active Engagement by avoiding the QFNS http://www.thestar.com/life/2011/09/19/need_for_campus_food_banks_on_the_rise.html http://www.foxnews.com/health/2013/02/01/how-to-balance-technology-and-family/
Activities: This Blog has (what seems like hundreds of) links to motivational articles and activities: http://www.cybraryman.com/motivating.html
The 2013 Free Education Technology Resources eBook http://www.humber.ca/centreforteachingandlearning/assets/files/Teaching%20Resources/2013_EmergingEdTech_Free-Education-Technology-Resources-eBook.pdf